• Mochammad Bachtiar Affandie Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Sopiah Universitas Negeri Malang


Literature Review, Transformational Leadership, Inspirational Leadership, Charismatic Leadership


Transformational leadership has become the center of attention of researchers and academics and has made it a source of reference or literature on leadership. This literature review is to identify the main points of transformational leadership (TFL) in the last 5 years, namely from 2018-2022. The method used is to search for keywords from the Direct Science and Google Scholar databases. A total of 25 articles of international repute and in English were downloaded. The results of a literature review show that transformational leadership is used as a model in leading that strengthens motivation, stimulates intellect, has charisma and becomes a source of inspiration from leaders to followers


N. Kotula, D. Kaczmarek-Ciesielska, and G. Mazurek, “Social Media e-Leadership Practices During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Higher Education,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 192, pp. 4741–4750, 2021, doi:

P. C. Verhoef et al., “Digital transformation: A multidisciplinary reflection and research agenda,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 122, pp. 889–901, 2021.

B. Oberer and A. Erkollar, “Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0,” Int. J. Organ. Leadersh., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 404–412, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.33844/ijol.2018.60332.

K. Leithwood, A. Harris, and D. Hopkins, “Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited,” Sch. Leadersh. Manag., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 5–22, 2020.

T. T. do Nascimento, J. B. Porto, and C. T. Kwantes, “Transformational leadership and follower proactivity in a volunteer workforce,” Nonprofit Manag. Leadersh., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 565–576, Jun. 2018, doi:

Z. Dixon and A. Schoeneman, “Learning/Teaching Case Study–The Rocky Road from Peace to Action,” Hum. Serv. Organ. Manag. Leadersh. Gov., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 493–501, 2018.

M. M. Naqshbandi and S. M. Jasimuddin, “Knowledge-oriented leadership and open innovation: Role of knowledge management capability in France-based multinationals,” Int. Bus. Rev., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 701–713, 2018, doi:

S. N. S. M. Adnan and R. Valliappan, “Communicating shared vision and leadership styles towards enhancing performance,” Int. J. Product. Perform. Manag., 2019.

S. H. Aldulaimi, “Leadership development program and leaders performance for mid-level managers in Saudi Petroleum Company, ARAMCO,” Arab Econ. Bus. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 15–24, 2018, doi:

F. V. Vizcaíno, S. L. Martin, J. J. Cardenas, and M. Cardenas, “Employees’ attitudes toward corporate social responsibility programs: The influence of corporate frugality and polychronicity organizational capabilities,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 124, pp. 538–546, 2021, doi:

B. Harb and D. Sidani, “Transformational leadership for organizational change in the Lebanese public sector,” Probl. Perspect. Manag., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 205–216, 2019, doi: 10.21511/ppm.17(2).2019.15.

N. M. Alsayyed, T. S. Suifan, R. J. Sweis, and B. A. Kilani, “The impact of transformational leadership on organisational performance case study: the University of Jordan,” Int. J. Bus. Excell., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 169–190, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1504/IJBEX.2020.105356.

L. Hui, S. Phouvong, and L. B. Phong, “Transformational leadership facilitates innovation capability: The mediating roles of interpersonal trust,” Int. J. Bus. Adm., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1–9, 2018.

P. B. Le and H. Lei, “Determinants of innovation capability: the roles of transformational leadership, knowledge sharing and perceived organizational support,” J. Knowl. Manag., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 527–547, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1108/JKM-09-2018-0568.

P. Liu, “Transformational leadership research in China (2005–2015),” Chinese Educ. Soc., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 372–409, 2018.

J. J. Sosik, F. J. Arenas, J. U. Chun, and Z. Ete, “Character into action: How officers demonstrate strengths with transformational leadership,” Air Sp. Power J., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 4–26, 2018.

S.-U.-R. Khan, M. Anjam, M. Abu Faiz, F. Khan, and H. Khan, “Probing the Effects of Transformational Leadership on Employees’ Job Satisfaction With Interaction of Organizational Learning Culture,” SAGE Open, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 2158244020930771, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1177/2158244020930771.

M. Jiménez, “Leadership Style, Organizational Performance, and Change Through the Lens of Emotional Intelligence,” Found. Manag., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 237–250, 2018, doi: doi:10.2478/fman-2018-0018.

J. bin Atan and N. Mahmood, “The role of transformational leadership style in enhancing employees’ competency for organization performance,” Manag. Sci. Lett., vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 2191–2200, 2019.

I. Buil, E. Martínez, and J. Matute, “Transformational leadership and employee performance: The role of identification, engagement and proactive personality,” Int. J. Hosp. Manag., vol. 77, pp. 64–75, 2019.

P. T. Balwant, K. Birdi, U. Stephan, and A. Topakas, “Transformational instructor-leadership and academic performance: a moderated mediation model of student engagement and structural distance,” J. Furth. High. Educ., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 884–900, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.1080/0309877X.2017.1420149.

Z. M. Htike, “Different leadership styles: Impact on organizational performance,” Int. J. Recent Trends Bus. Tour., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 8–12, 2019.

A. G. Nassif, R. D. Hackett, and G. Wang, “Ethical, Virtuous, and Charismatic Leadership: An Examination of Differential Relationships with Follower and Leader Outcomes,” J. Bus. Ethics, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 581–603, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s10551-020-04491-8.

M. A. Islam, A. H. Jantan, H. Hashim, C. W. Chong, and M. M. Abdullah, “Factors Influencing Female Progression in Leadership Positions in the Ready-Made Garment (RMG) Industry in Bangladesh,” J. Int. Bus. Manag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2018.

N. Hatzijordanou, N. Bohn, and O. Terzidis, “A systematic literature review on competitor analysis: status quo and start-up specifics,” Manag. Rev. Q., vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 415–458, 2019.

J.-X. Chen, P. Sharma, W. Zhan, and L. Liu, “Demystifying the impact of CEO transformational leadership on firm performance: Interactive roles of exploratory innovation and environmental uncertainty,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 96, pp. 85–96, 2019, doi:

M. Usman, “Transformational leadership and organizational change: In the context of today’s leader,” Int. Bus. Educ. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 95–107, 2020.

G. Gunawan, “The influence of transformational leadership, school culture and work motivation on school effectiveness in junior high school in Medan,” Budapest Int. Res. Critics Inst. Humanit. Soc. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 625–634, 2020.

Z. Adriani, “Improving Performance through Transformational Leadership and Utilization of Information Technology: A Survey in Mosque-Based Islamic Cooperatives in Indonesia,” Acad. Strateg. Manag. J., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1–13, 2019.

H.-C. Lin and P.-C. Lin, “The interplay between CEO-TMT exchange level and differentiation: Implications for firm competitive behaviors and performance,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 95, pp. 171–181, 2019.

B. J. Tepper et al., “Examining follower responses to transformational leadership from a dynamic, person–environment fit perspective,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1343–1368, 2018.

S. M. Shokory, S. A. Hamid, M. Awang, and N. S. Hudin, “The Impact of the Leadership of the Head of Department on Administrative Staff’s Performance in Malaysian Premier Education University,” Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 27–42, 2019.

B. Harb and D. Sidani, “Transformational leadership for organizational change in the Lebanese public sector,” Probl. Perspect. Manag., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 205–216, 2019.

E. Schreiner, S. B. Trent, K. A. Prange, and J. A. Allen, “Leading volunteers: Investigating volunteers’ perceptions of leaders’ behavior and gender,” Nonprofit Manag. Leadersh., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 241–260, Dec. 2018, doi:

S. Tafvelin, K. Isaksson, and K. Westerberg, “The First Year of Service: A Longitudinal Study of Organisational Antecedents of Transformational Leadership in the Social Service Organisations,” Br. J. Soc. Work, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 430–448, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcx038.

T. Por Pan, J. Trakulmututa, and N. Youravong, “Self-perception of leadership style of dentists: heads of dental departments in community hospitals, Southern Thailand,” Int. Dent. J., vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 193–200, 2020, doi:

R. Pirayesh and Z. Pourrezay, “The Effect of Transformational Leadership Style and Organizational Innovation on Improving Environmental Performance of Environmental Polluters Companies Case Study: Lead Producer Companies in Zanjan Province,” J. Environ. Manag. Tour. Vol 10 No 7 JEMT Vol. X Issue 7(39) Winter 2019, 2020, doi: 10.14505//jemt.v10.7(39).25.


M. Sheehan, T. N. Garavan, and M. J. Morley, “Transformational leadership and work unit innovation: A dyadic two-wave investigation,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 109, pp. 399–412, 2020, doi:

H. Lei, L. Leaungkhamma, and P. B. Le, “How transformational leadership facilitates innovation capability: the mediating role of employees’ psychological capital,” Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 481–499, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1108/LODJ-06-2019-0245.

M. A. Sahban, “The transformational leadership, knowledge management and perceived organizational support in predicting innovation capability,” Polish J. Manag. Stud., vol. 20, 2019.

M. ngeles Á. L. Cabarcos, P. Vázquez-Rodríguez, and L. M. Quiñoá-Piñeiro, “An approach to employees’ job performance through work environmental variables and leadership behaviours,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 140, pp. 361–369, 2022, doi:

M. Azimirad, C. Magnusson, A. Wiseman, T. Selander, I. Parviainen, and H. Turunen, “British and Finnish nurses’ attitudes, practice, and knowledge on deteriorating patient in-service education: A study in two acute hospitals,” Nurse Educ. Pract., vol. 54, p. 103093, 2021, doi:

J. Hetland, H. Hetland, A. B. Bakker, and E. Demerouti, “Daily transformational leadership and employee job crafting: The role of promotion focus,” Eur. Manag. J., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 746–756, 2018, doi:

A. B. Bakker, J. Hetland, O. Kjellevold Olsen, and R. Espevik, “Daily transformational leadership: A source of inspiration for follower performance?,” Eur. Manag. J., 2022, doi:

K. W. Ågotnes et al., “Daily work pressure and exposure to bullying-related negative acts: The role of daily transformational and laissez-faire leadership,” Eur. Manag. J., vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 423–433, 2021, doi:

K. P. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, and D. Suar, “Enablers of workforce agility, firm performance, and corporate reputation,” Asia Pacific Manag. Rev., 2022, doi:

L. Christoffersen, J. Teigen, and C. Rønningstad, “Following-up midwives after adverse incidents: How front-line management practices help second victims,” Midwifery, vol. 85, p. 102669, 2020, doi:

A. Eliyana, S. Ma’arif, and Muzakki, “Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance,” Eur. Res. Manag. Bus. Econ., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 144–150, 2019, doi:

F. Kolomboy, S. Palutturi, F. Rifai, L. M. Saleh, Nasrul, and R. Amiruddin, “Leadership style based on the study of multifactor leadership questionnaire in Palu Anutapura hospital,” Gac. Sanit., vol. 35, pp. S432–S434, 2021, doi:

H. K. Gemeda and J. Lee, “Leadership styles, work engagement and outcomes among information and communications technology professionals: A cross-national study,” Heliyon, vol. 6, no. 4, p. e03699, 2020, doi:

M. N. Islam, F. Furuoka, and A. Idris, “Mapping the relationship between transformational leadership, trust in leadership and employee championing behavior during organizational change,” Asia Pacific Manag. Rev., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 95–102, 2021, doi:

B. K. AlNuaimi, S. Kumar Singh, S. Ren, P. Budhwar, and D. Vorobyev, “Mastering digital transformation: The nexus between leadership, agility, and digital strategy,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 145, pp. 636–648, 2022, doi:

Idris, N. AS, B. E. Soetjipto, and A. S. Supriyanto, “Predicting factors of organizational citizenship behavior in Indonesian nurses,” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 12, p. e08652, 2021, doi:

K. Suwanyuha and I. Rinthaisong, “Structural equation modeling of organizational health in the marine fisheries management section under the fisheries management bureau,” Kasetsart J. Soc. Sci., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 387–392, 2018, doi:

M. Z. Fareed, Q. Su, and A. A. Awan, “The effect of emotional intelligence, intellectual intelligence and transformational leadership on project success; an empirical study of public projects of Pakistan,” Proj. Leadersh. Soc., vol. 2, p. 100036, 2021, doi:

N. Sudibjo and R. K. Prameswari, “The effects of knowledge sharing and person–organization fit on the relationship between transformational leadership on innovative work behavior,” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 6, p. e07334, 2021, doi:

M. Shafi, Z. Lei, X. Song, and M. N. I. Sarker, “The effects of transformational leadership on employee creativity: Moderating role of intrinsic motivation,” Asia Pacific Manag. Rev., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 166–176, 2020.

T. T. Hoai, B. Q. Hung, and N. P. Nguyen, “The impact of internal control systems on the intensity of innovation and organizational performance of public sector organizations in Vietnam: the moderating role of transformational leadership,” Heliyon, vol. 8, no. 2, p. e08954, 2022, doi:

R. Kaymakcı, A. Görener, and K. Toker, “The perceived overqualification’s effect on innovative work behaviour: Do transformational leadership and turnover intention matter?,” Curr. Res. Behav. Sci., vol. 3, p. 100068, 2022, doi:

N. A. Khan, A. N. Khan, M. A. Soomro, and S. K. Khan, “Transformational leadership and civic virtue behavior: Valuing act of thriving and emotional exhaustion in the hotel industry,” Asia Pacific Manag. Rev., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 216–225, 2020, doi:

L. R. Farahnak, M. G. Ehrhart, E. M. Torres, and G. A. Aarons, “The influence of transformational leadership and leader attitudes on subordinate attitudes and implementation success,” J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 98–111, 2020.

S. K. Singh, M. Del Giudice, R. Chierici, and D. Graziano, “Green innovation and environmental performance: The role of green transformational leadership and green human resource management,” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 150, p. 119762, 2020, doi:

F.-Y. Lai, H.-C. Tang, S.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Lee, and C.-C. Lin, “Transformational leadership and job performance: The mediating role of work engagement,” Sage Open, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 2158244019899085, 2020.

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